Water quality criteria (WQC) for metals have been developed to protect the integrity of aquatic systems. However, tests used to develop WQC were performed in laboratory waters that often are not representative of natural waters. Water effect ratio (WER) tests account for the effects of substances that alter the toxicity of metals in natural waters but can be costly and time consuming.
The biotic ligand model (BLM), a computationally efficient alternative to conducting WER tests, has
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